Sauerkraut, cheese and sausages are examples of food products obtained by one of the oldest processes still in use: fermentation. Already known more than 10 000 years ago for the storage and the transport of food products, the principle of fermentation was however understood much later by Pasteur, in 1857. Described as “the life without air”, fermentation consists in low-energy biochemical reactions occurring in the food matrix (Ockerman H.W. & Basu L., 2014). Natural, this phenomenon is due to the growth of live bacteria present in the raw materials and in the environment of the factory.